Introduction of Nanotechnology, Application and Uses

  • Table of content
  1. Introduction
  2. Type of Nanotechnology(Nanomaterial)
  3. Application of Nanotechnology
  4. Future Of Nanotechnology


This technological branch manipulates the molecular structure of materials to change their intrinsic properties and obtain others with revolutionary applications. Nanotechnology is the term given to those areas of science and engineering where phenomena that take place at dimensions in the nanoscale are utilized in the design, characterization, production and application of materials, structures, devices and systems.

In 1959 the American Nobel prize and physicist Richard Feynman was the first to speak about the applications of nanotechnology at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In the 21st century, this area consolidated, as marketed and came into its own. It includes other areas such as micro-manufacturing, organic chemistry and molecular biology. In the United States alone, for example, more than 18 billion dollars were invested between 2001 and 2013 through the NNI (National Nanotechnology Initiative) to turn this sector into a driver of economic growth and competitiveness.

Type of Nanotechnology:

The different types of nanotechnology are classified according to how they proceed (top-down or bottom-up) and the medium in which they work (dry or wet):

Descending(Top down)

Mechanisms and structures are miniaturized at the nanometric scale — from one to 100 nanometers in size —. It is the most frequent to date, especially in electronics.

Ascending(Bottom up)

You start with a nanometric structure — a molecule, for example — and through a mounting or self-assembly process you create a larger mechanism than the one you started with.

Dry Nanotechnology

It is used to manufacture structures in coal, silicon, inorganic materials, metals and semiconductors that do not work with humidity.

Wet Nanotechnology

It is based on biological systems present in an aqueous environment — including genetic material, membranes, enzymes, and other cellular components.

Application of Nanotechnology

When some materials are manipulated at the atomic scale, they acquire unique and important visible, electrical or magnetic properties. This is why nanotechnology applications vary in different areas of life such as energy, medicine, agriculture, electronics, etc.

Nanotechnology in Electronics:

There is a strong likelihood that carbon nanotubes will replace silicon for microchips, devices, and quantum nanowires in a material that is smaller, faster, and more efficient. Flexible touchscreens can be made with graphene due to their unique properties.

Nanotechnology In Energy:

Solar panels can now be manufactured with a semiconductor developed by Kyoto University that doubles the amount of electricity they produce from sunlight. As a result of nanotechnology, wind turbines are stronger, lighter, and more energy-efficient, and some nano components are thermally insulated, which can lead to increased efficiency and a decrease in costs.

Nanotech In Medicine:

The involvement of nanotechnology in medicine can revolutionize the path of detecting and treating the damage that occurred in human bodies.  The most important applications are:

  • Delivery of drugs to specific cells
  • Diagnostics or disease detection techniques
  • Antibacterial treatments
  •  Wound treatments
  • Cell repair

Nanotechnology In Environment:

Nanofiltration systems for heavy metals, water purification through nanobubbles, and air purification with ions are some of the environmentally friendly applications of nanotechnology. Chemical reactions can also be made more efficient and less polluting by using nanocatalysts.

Nanotechnology in Textile:

Nanotechnology makes it possible to develop smart fabrics that don’t stain nor wrinkle, as well as stronger, lighter and more durable materials to make motorcycle helmets or sports equipment

Textiles can be nanoengineered to have specific functions including hydrophobicity, antibacterial properties, conductivity, antiwrinkle properties, antistatic behavior, and light guidance and scattering. Using nanotechnology, these properties can be achieved without affecting breathability or texture.

Future of Nanotechnology:

In the future, nanotechnology could also enable objects to harvest energy from their environment. New nano-materials and concepts are currently being developed that show potential for producing energy from movement, light, variations in temperature, glucose and other sources with high conversion efficiency.

There are also dark spots in the future of nanotechnology. As this sector is expected to grow globally, driven by technological advances, increased government support, increased private investment, and growing demand for smaller devices, to name a few. However, the environmental, health, and safety risks of nanotechnology and concerns related to its commercialization could hamper market expansion.

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