A programming language is a system of notation for writing computer programs. Most programming languages are text-based formal languages, but they may also be graphical. They are a kind of computer language.
The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning), which are usually defined by a formal language. Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard) while other languages (such as Perl) have a dominant implementation that is treated as a reference. Some languages have both, with the basic language defined by a standard and extensions taken from the dominant implementation being common.
Programming language theory is the subfield of computer science that studies the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages.
Computer languages vs programming languages The word computer language is used interchangeably with programming language.
Languages used in computing that have a different goal than expressing computer programs are generically designated computer languages. One way of classifying computer languages is by the computations they are capable of expressing, as described by the theory of computation.
The majority of practical programming languages are Turing complete, and all Turing complete languages can implement the same set of algorithms. ANSI/ISO SQL-92 and Charity are examples of languages that are not Turing complete, yet are often called programming languages. However, some authors restrict the term “programming language” to Turing complete languages.
Another usage regards programming languages as theoretical constructs for programming abstract machines and computer languages as the subset thereof that runs on physical computers, which have finite hardware resources. John C. Reynolds emphasizes that formal specification languages are just as much programming languages as are the languages intended for execution.
Early developments Very early computers, such as Colossus, were programmed without the help of a stored program, by modifying their circuitry or setting banks of physical controls. Slightly later, programs could be written in machine language, where the programmer writes each instruction in a numeric form the hardware can execute directly.
For example, the instruction to add the value in two memory locations might consist of 3 numbers: an “opcode” that selects the “add” operation, and two memory locations. The programs, in decimal or binary
form, were read in from punched cards, paper tape, magnetic tape or toggled in on switches on the front panel of the computer. Machine languages were later termed first-generation programming languages (1GL).
The next step was the development of the so-called second-generation programming languages (2GL) or assembly languages, which were still closely tied to the instruction set architecture of the specific computer.
These served to make the program much more human readable and relieved the programmer of tedious and error-prone address calculations.
The first high-level programming languages, or third-generation programming languages (3GL), were written in the 1950s. An early high-level programming language to be designed for a computer was Plankalkül, developed for the German Z3 by Konrad Zuse between 1943 and 1944 However, it was not implemented until 1998 and 2000.
Another early programming language was devised by Grace Hopper in the US, called FLOWMATIC. It was developed for the UNIVAC I at Remington Rand during the period from 1955 until Hopper found that business data processing customers were uncomfortable with mathematical notation, and in early 1955,
she and her team wrote a specification for an English programming language and implemented a prototype. The FLOW-MATIC compiler became publicly available in early 1958 and was substantially complete in 1959. FLOW-MATIC was a major influence in the design of COBOL, since only it and its direct
descendant AIMACO were in actual use at the time.
A programming language’s surface form is known as its syntax. Most programming languages
are purely textual; they use sequences of text including words, numbers, and punctuation, much
like written natural languages. On the other hand, some programming languages are
more graphical in nature, using visual relationships between symbols to specify a program.
The term semantics refers to the meaning of languages, as opposed to their form (syntax).
A static semantics defines restrictions on the structure of valid texts that are hard or impossible to express in standard syntactic formalisms. For compiled languages, static semantics essentially include those semantic rules that can be checked at compile time.
Examples include checking that every identifier is declared before it is used (in languages that require such declarations) or that the labels on the arms of a case statement are distinct. Many important restrictions of this type, like checking that identifiers are used in the appropriate context (e.g. not adding an integer to a function name), or that subroutine calls have the appropriate number and type of arguments, can be enforced by defining them as rules in a logic called a type system.
Once data has been specified, the machine must be instructed to perform operations on the data. For example, the semantics may define the strategy by which expressions are evaluated to values, or the manner in which control structures conditionally execute statements.
The dynamic semantics (also known as execution semantics) of a language defines how and when the various constructs of a language should produce a program behavior. There are many ways of defining execution semantics. Natural language is often used to specify the execution semantics of languages commonly used in practice.
Designee and Implantation
Programming languages share properties with natural languages related to their purpose as vehicles for communication, having a syntactic form separate from its semantics, and showing language families of related languages branching one from another.
But as artificial constructs, they also differ in fundamental ways from languages that have evolved through
usage. A significant difference is that a programming language can be fully described and studied in its entirety since it has a precise and finite definition. By contrast, natural languages have changing meanings given by their users in different communities.
While constructed languages are also artificial languages designed from the ground up with a specific purpose, they lack the precise and complete semantic definition that a programming language has Many programming languages have been designed from scratch, altered to meet new needs, and combined with other languages.
Many have eventually fallen into disuse. Although there have been attempts to design one “universal” programming language that serves all purposes, all of them have failed to be generally accepted as filling this role.
The need for diverse programming languages arises from the diversity of contexts in which languages are used:
1 Programs range from tiny scripts written by individual hobbyists to huge systems
written by hundreds of programmers.
2 Programmers range in expertise from novices who need simplicity above all else to experts who may be comfortable with considerable complexity.
3 Programs must balance speed, size, and simplicity on systems ranging from microcontrollers to supercomputers.
4 Programs may be written once and not change for generations, or they may undergo
5 Programmers may simply differ in their tastes: they may be accustomed to discussing problems and expressing them in a particular language.
One common trend in the development of programming languages has been to add more ability to solve problems using a higher level of abstraction. The earliest programming languages were
tied very closely to the underlying hardware of the computer. As new programming languages
have developed, features have been added that let programmers express ideas that are more
remote from simple translation into underlying hardware instructions. Because programmers are
less tied to the complexity of the computer, their programs can do more computing with less
effort from the programmer. This lets them write more functionality per time unit.
The specification of a programming language is an artifact that the language users and the implementors can use to agree upon whether a piece of source code is a valid program in that language, and if so what its behavior shall be.
A programming language specification can take several forms, including the following: An explicit definition of the syntax, static semantics, and execution semantics of the language. While syntax is commonly specified using a formal grammar, semantic definitions may be written in natural language (e.g., as in the C language), or a formal semantics (e.g., as in Standard ML and Schemespecifications).
A description of the behavior of a translator for the language (e.g., the C++ and Fortran specifications). The syntax and semantics of the language have to be inferred from this description, which may be written in natural or formal language.
An implementation of a programming language provides a way to write programs in that language and execute them on one or more configurations of hardware and software. There are, broadly, two approaches to programming language implementation: compilation and interpretation. It is generally possible to implement a language using either technique.
The output of a compiler may be executed by hardware or a program called an interpreter. In
some implementations that make use of the interpreter approach, there is no distinct boundary
between compiling and interpreting. For instance, some implementations of BASIC compile and
then execute the source one line at a time.
Programs that are executed directly on the hardware usually run much faster than those that are
interpreted in software.
One technique for improving the performance of interpreted programs is just-in-time compilation.
Here the virtual machine, just before execution, translates the blocks of bytecode which are
going to be used to machine code, for direct execution on the hardware.
Although most of the most commonly used programming languages have fully open specifications and implementations, many programming languages exist only as proprietary programming languages with the implementation available only from a single vendor, which may claim that such a proprietary language is their intellectual property.
languages are commonly domain specific languages or internal scripting languages for a single
product; some proprietary languages are used only internally within a vendor, while others are
available to external users.
Some programming languages exist on the border between proprietary and open; for example, Oracle Corporation asserts proprietary rights to some aspects of the Java programming language, and Microsoft’s C++ programming language, which has open implementations of most parts of the system, also has Common Language Runtime (CLR) as a closed environment.
Many proprietary languages are widely used, in spite of their proprietary nature; examples include MATLAB, VBScript, and Wolfram Language. Some languages may make the transition from closed to open; for example, Erlang was originally Ericsson’s internal programming language.
1.C AND C++
C is a low-level language. This means that it requires the programmer to understand the underlying computer hardware. High-level languages have abstracted the computer details. For example, when using a low-level language, your program can take care of memory management in the code. Typically, higher programming languages automate the process of memory management for computers. Although C
is low level, it compensates for having better performance than other easy-to-learn languages. While performance might not be a significant concern for a social media app, it’s a substantial consideration for gaming apps, movie special effects software, and portions of operating systems.
C++ came from C and is used to simplify programming, though it’s still a low-level language. You can easily translate C programs to C++. In comparison, coders may use it for embedded systems, while C++ is better structured for application development. Bjarne Stroustrup created C++ in 1985, 13 years after the invention of C. C and C++ are one of the earliest programming languages, which means learning
these languages can place you as an essential employee even as time changes.
Developers also use Java to create Android applications for mobiles. The Java virtual machine allows the language to run on many platforms. Scala and Kotlin also run on the java virtual machine, making all these languages compatible and necessary to develop mobile apps. Specialized industries such as cloud computing, the internet of elements, and enterprise architecture use Java.
This is a high-level and general-purpose language that focuses on code readability. It’s one of the most popular beginner languages because of its ease of use, wide application, active community, and freedom of use.
Programmers can use it for object-oriented, structured, or functional tasks. Python has a comprehensive
standard library, which has earned the language the title “batteries included.” The libraries provide tools for many tasks, such as creating internet applications, graphical user interfaces, and data analytics.
The ease of use of this language is because of its simple, less-cluttered syntax and grammar with freedom of methodology during programming. Unlike most languages, python uses English words instead of punctuation. It also has fewer exceptional cases and syntactic exceptions than C language. Employers can use it in information technology, engineering, professional services, and design. Python helps you work
fast to integrate systems as a glue language. It’s also a popular rapid application development (RAD) language. The following are some application areas of python:
3. machine learning
4. web scraping
5. mobile apps
6. image processing
7. computer networking
8. web frameworks
9. scientific computing
10. system administration
HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects such as interactive forms may be embedded into the rendered page. HTML provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes, and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags, written using angle brackets. Tags such as and directly introduce content into the page. Other tags such as
website interactivity and richness.
Developers also use it in back-ends to power mobile applications and web apps or act as a standalone API to incorporate other companies and services.
Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to query data. Computers send the SQL data queries to a server that responds with the requested data. SQL allows you to retrieve, insert, update, delete, and create data within a database.
There are many variants of SQL and all variants have several similarities. The ANSI standard requirement enforces these similarities that the variants include significant commands, such as where, select, and delete.
SQL database servers are useful in websites and apps in storing information such as a user’s posts and profiles. SQL jobs and career opportunities include high-paying jobs in business intelligence and data science.
Tips to help you learn a new programming language: Learning a new language or progressing into advanced programming can be exciting. With the correct strategy, you can excel in learning how to code. Follow these steps to learn a new programming language. Determine your goals and skills Choosing the best language to learn involves understanding your goals and skills.
Learning multiple languages is necessary to become a successful software developer. Understanding your goals and skills can help you select the best language to learn. Another consideration is to know how you learn. If you learn by getting everything upfront to develop a firm foundation in coding, C is an excellent
language to start. Python or Ruby may be the best simple languages to learn if you love learning by doing. Understand computational thinking Computational thinking is a crucial skill in programming that helps you approach a problem systematically and create a solution in a way that a computer can process
and fulfil the task.
This skill helps you understand and implement computer logic. You can start your learning process by using abstractions, pattern recognition, and algorithms. This can help make you more intuitive as you learn a new language after understanding computer jargon and logic. Use online resources After deciding which language to learn, you can search for online resources that can teach you well. If you’re a programmer who prefers to be self-taught, you can look for online classes, web applications, and resources that make learning the language more accessible. If you prefer a formal setting, you can opt for a university degree or a certification.
DEVELOPE LOGIC BUILDING APTITUDE
You should have a better logic building aptitude so that you can generate the logic for what to come next and write a good program. You also have to identify the error and able to resolve it.
FUTURE OF PROGRAMMING:
What are Some Popular Careers in Coding?
We began with a question, is coding a good career choice? According to Forbes, the global number of software developers will increase to 45 million by 2030. So, the demand for coders is certainly growing worldwide. . With this rise in demand, many coding jobs have become available, with new ones materializing every year. The following are the top roles you can choose to pursue a coding career in
- Software Engineer
Software engineers develop applications for cell phones, tablets, and other mobile devices that people use daily. It is an excellent career for people who like to bring ideas to life and directly impact
- Web Developer
- Computer Systems Engineer
They are the ones you call when you need to solve complex issues in your application or network. They work with clients to understand the functioning and demands of a system and develop required solutions. Python or C++ are the languages to learn to be a computer systems engineer.
- Database Administrator
They are responsible for organizing, operating, and utilizing large amounts of data stored in databases. Successful companies often own a massive amount of online data. Database administrators are essential for such businesses. Learn Python or SQL if you want to enter this field.
- Quality Assurance (QA) Engineer
QA engineers are the first to determine whether the software is ready for the market. They run tests, document issues, and provide reviews for new software applications. Given the rate at which new
technology is emerging, QA engineers are in high demand. Pick up Java or Python to secure a job in this space.
What is the Average Salary for a Computer Programmer?
As discussed, coding skills are in high demand around the world. To meet this demand, universities are training many computer programmers. Your salary as a computer programmer depends on
your skills as a software developer, the coding languages you know, and the kind of applications you can develop.
According to a survey for the US, in 2020, the salary was:
With the proper skill set, computer programming can be a lucrative career allowing you to lead a comfortable lifestyle. For a global perspective on the salary of a programmer and to answer the
question, ‘is coding a good career’ for your region, please explore the global salary of software engineers. Career Outlook for Coders and Computer Programmers According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment of computer programmers will decline by 10 percent between 2021
and 2031. However, despite this decline, they project 9,600 new openings for computer programmers each year due to workers who will transfer to other occupations or retire.
Automation is also responsible for the decline of programming jobs. As companies continue to automate simple or repetitive tasks, the positions of workers who used to perform these tasks become obsolete. However, this creates the opportunity for people with different sets of skills. While simpler tasks will get automated, the demand for strategic roles will rise. Programmers need to upskill to fulfill these tasks to remain competitive. You can explore the best coding courses by Emeritus here.
Is There a High Demand for Coding Jobs?
In a world that relies more and more on technology to make life more convenient, developers will always be in high demand. As senior programmers exit, the workforce, and mid-level engineers
get promoted, and entry-level positions will continue to open up. What’s more, with the emergence of new technologies, there is a demand for skilled programmers to create and operate them. The distinguishing factor is the programmer’s skill level. Hence the need for full-stack developers is exceptionally high since it is far more lucrative to hire one person who can understand and handle your entire operation than to hire multiple people with limited coding skills.
Tips for Getting Started in a Software
Engineering Career Becoming a software engineer in 2022 is not that hard. Top firms around the globe maintain that “anybody can code.” Finding open positions for developers isn’t hard. The real challenge is the process of obtaining the skills and experience needed.
There are several ways you can gain an education in software engineering:
- Formal education: Many colleges around the globe offer courses in computer and software engineering.
- Online Coding Bootcamps: These curated programs teach you specific coding skills needed to get you job-ready.
- Self-learning: You can also try and teach yourself to code. While it may seem impractical, hundreds of sites and apps can teach you how to code online. However, it is always advisable to back up self-learning with online coding courses to make sure you do not miss out on essentials. Once you learn a coding language or two, it is essential to put your skills to the test. You can take up projects or internships to gain valuable experience. Participating in competitions and hackathons is also a great way to gain expertise in real-time coding. Finally, building your portfolio with certifications and other experiences is vital to securing a job.
Shortlist the positions that interest you. This way, you can plan your education to gain the skills which will help you score your dream role. Coding is an essential skill for many professions in today’s world. It has a part to play in almost every aspect of our lives. A career in coding can be fulfilling not only because of the remuneration it offers but also because it lets you directly impact the lives of those around you.